According to a recent study, more than 73 million adults in India have been detected with diabetes and, unfortunately, one in two people with diabetes do not even know they have this condition.
Diabetes, a condition commonly known as "sugar diabetes" and medically as "Diabetes Mellitus" is a health problem associated with increased levels of glucose / blood sugar. The most important symptoms of the disease include increased headache, frequent urination, unexplained weight loss, fatigue, skin injury, healing of the delayed wound, etc.
Fortunately, diabetes can be kept aside if measures are taken for preventative and non-healing. Detection rates can be improved by increasing awareness of the problem / symptoms and providing better selection opportunities for individuals with high risk overweight / obesity, sedentary lifestyle, bad eating habits, family history of diabetes, high BP, women with diabetes Precionaria previa, polycystic ovaries, elderly, etc.
The theme of World Diabetes Day 2018 is "Family & Diabetes & # 39;". It is well recognized that any form of diabetes not only affects the patient but also affects the psycho-socio-economics of the family. If you know that a support family improves the health outcomes of the patient with diabetes. Education and raising awareness about diabetes in the family can contribute positively to the "team effort" to overcome diabetes. Some prominent diabetes that can affect a family is:
Children's Diabetes: Diabetes type 1 previously called "juvenile diabetes", usually occurs in the first and second decades of life. More than one million children and adolescents around the world have this condition; Around 1.00,000 of them live in India. They need insulin every day for survival.
Insulin is administered as injections, with newer devices such as insulin-pen that facilitate the process. Glucometers help control finger glucose readings and, together with diabetes, education and awareness about diet and physical activity, patients with type 1 diabetes can take an active life.
In childhood, parents play an important role in diabetes management. The support of educational institutions is also essential. In recent years, with the epidemic of childhood obesity, Diabetes Type 2, previously associated with adulthood, is also affecting obese children and adolescents. One in every 10 children in India is at risk.
Gestational Diabetes (GDM): Occurs during pregnancy, this diabetes usually disappears after delivery. Indian women have an 11-fold higher risk than Caucasians for experiencing high levels of blood sugar during pregnancy; Almost 90% is due to GDM. Risk factors for GDM include excess weight, which has a family history of diabetes, Indian ancestry, a pre-existing large baby, previously GDM, PCOS, or over 25 years of age.
GDM is a risk to both the mother and the baby if it is not detected or is well controlled. For example, the baby can be very big making delivery difficult. In addition, the baby may have problems such as low blood sugar, jaundice and low calcium content, and subsequently, the child may be at a higher risk of being overweight and developing diabetes when he ages. A mother of GDM may be at increased risk of c-sections and also develop a type 2 Diabetes in the future.
Prediabetes: This condition is diagnosed by blood tests, where the blood glucose level is more than normal, but not high enough to be called diabetes. In simple terms, it is "limited diabetes" and an early warning of obtaining total diabetes during the next few years if it is not controlled. Provides a window of opportunity to intervene with lifestyle and medication measures, if necessary, to reduce the risk of progression of type 2 diabetes
Type 2 diabetes is increasing worldwide, due to rapid urbanization, the easy availability of high-calorie foods, sedentary lifestyle, lack of adequate exercise, aging population, genetic risk, stressful life / agitated with unhealthy eating patterns, etc. lost yet! Scientific research has shown that in pre-diabetic patients and high-risk individuals, weight loss through an active and healthy lifestyle can reduce the risk of diabetes.
It is necessary to control the symptoms to improve daily life, reducing the risk of complications for the eyes, kidneys, feet, heart, etc. Promote a healthy and supportive home environment and a good lifestyle and diet will benefit both adults and children. Awareness of the symptoms of diabetes among family members can ensure that "undetected" cases are detected early and the risk of delayed treatment or complications is reduced. Regular clinical and laboratory assessments are necessary to ensure the control and control of diabetes.
(The writer is Endocrinologist Consultant and HOD, Manipal Hospitals, Bengaluru)