In Peru, it is estimated that More than 260,000 children under five have asthma, a bad that affects the quality of life of minors and can even can cause death.
In general, this attack attacks 25% of the national population, one of the highest figures in Latin America. In this way, It becomes a problem for parents and children, because it is the main cause of school absenteeism, according to EsSalud's data.
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What are the symptoms of asthma in children?
O Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease that affects the bronchi, therefore, it produces the feeling of lack of air. It triggers several factors, such as allergens, environmental contamination, etc.
"O asthma It is a very common disease in children under 10 years of age People know them with different names, like allergic bronchitis, for example ", explains El Comercio Manuel Soto, pediatric pneumologist at the Children's National Hospital of Costa Rica.
"If your child has respiratory symptoms of cough, nasal discharge, nasal congestion, difficulty in breathing, chest tightness, wheezing in the chest and These symptoms appear frequently, it is preferable that you go to a doctor to analyze family factors, risk factors at home, etc. "he adds.
Soto adds that parents should also be aware of the following warning signs:
– The boy avoids doing sports
– Night cough
– Sensitivity to temperature change
What causes asthma?
We still do not know why some people develop asthma and others not, but "It is likely that this is due to a combination of environmental and genetic factors (hereditary)", by Mayo Clinic.
In most patients there are substances that trigger asthma. These can be found in the air, such as flower pollen, dust mites, molds, pet dander, cockroach waste particles, etc.
O Asthma can also be caused by respiratory infections, physical activity, cold air, environmental pollution, some medications (beta blockers, aspirin, ibuprofen).
Therefore, doctors should evaluate the patient to determine which activates the asthma images, to eliminate these agents and thus to avoid the excessive use of medicines, details Soto.
How is asthma treated?
After diagnosis, doctors treat according to the severity of each case, with the aim of reducing episodes of asthma.
In other cases, the call "Maintenance medications"They are taken daily to control persistent asthma and can be inhaled, corticosteroids, which are anti-inflammatory medications, leukotriene modifiers, which usually accompany the first, combined inhalers, and theophylline, a type of drug that opens the airways (bronchodilator ).
There is also the medicines "rescue", which are used when a severe episode of asthma occurs and you need to control the symptoms immediately. Its effects last for four to six hours and do not prevent the symptoms appear.
What is the difference between asthma and rhinitis?
Many of the symptoms of Asthma can be confused with those of allergic rhinitis or with the cold, for which it is important to determine what is the disease that affects the minor to give the best treatment.
"This child who is constantly ill, that parents see they always have mucus, always go back to school because they are sick. Most likely it has poorly controlled rhinitis. " says Soto.
O Asthma and rhinitis are ills that have a lot of relationship between them, but there is an important difference: "both are inflammatory diseases. In rhinitis the symptoms occur mainly with nasal congestion, itching on the nose, headaches, conjunctivitis, sneezing. Asthma occurs mainly with nocturnal cough, limitation with exercise. "
The problem is that "Bad control of one (of these diseases) can cause the other to not be controlled".
"80% of asthmatic patients are rhinitis and a third Patients with rhinitis have asthma ", add the specialist.
The allergens that cause asthma are usually the same as do them rhinitis allergic, which can be seasonal (appears in spring or fall) and permanent (symptoms occur throughout the year).
The treatment of rhinitis allergic It occurs primarily with antihistamines, which reduce sneezing, the discharge of the nose and itching; nasal sprays with steroids that reduce the reaction of the nodules to allergens; and antileukotrienes, which block some of the chemicals that are associated with the allergic response.
O asthma and rhinitis These are the illnesses that affect the quality of life of children and adults who live mainly in urbanized areas and with high pollution, which should be controlled due to the increase in cases that have occurred in recent years, warns WHO.
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